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Request Lifecycle

When using any tool in the "real world", you feel more confident if you understand how that tool works. Application development is no different. When you understand how your development tools function, you feel more comfortable and confident using them.

The following steps describe a basic API call scenario:

  1. The User calls an Endpoint in a Route file.
  2. Endpoint calls a Middleware to handle the Authentication.
  3. Endpoint calls its corresponding Controller function.
  4. The Request object, which is injected in the Controller, applies the request validation and authorization rules.
  5. Controller calls an Action and passes the data from the Request object to it.
  6. Action executes the business logic or call as many Tasks as needed.
  7. Tasks execute reusable subsets of the business logic.
  8. Action prepares the data to be returned to the Controller, and may collect data from the Tasks if needed.
  9. Controller builds the response using a View or Transformer, and sends it back to the User.

It is important to note that the Request object handles request validation and authorization rules, while the Action executes the business logic. The Tasks can be used to execute reusable subsets of the business logic, with each Task responsible for a single portion of the main Action. The View or Transformer is used to build the response that is sent back to the User.

Request Lifecycle Diagram


  • Solid Line: Mandatory dependency (always used)
  • Doted Line: Optional dependency (not always used)
  • Red Solid Border: Response generation
  • Green Dashed Border: Optional component (not always used)